Category Archives: PID control

ABR Control repo public release!

https://github.com/abr/abr_control

Last August I started working on a new version of my old control repo with a resolve to make something less hacky, as part of the work for Applied Brain Research, Inc, a startup that I co-founded with others from my lab after most of my cohort graduated. Together with Pawel Jaworski, who comprises other half of ABR’s motor team, we’ve been building up a library of useful functions for modeling, simulating, interfacing, and controlling robot arms.

Today we’re making the repository public, under the same free for non-commercial use that we’ve released our Nengo neural modelling software on. You can find it here: ABR_Control

It’s all Python 3, and here’s an overview of some of the features:

  • Automates generation of functions for computing the Jacobians, joint space and task space inertia matrices, centrifugal and Coriolis effects, and Jacobian derivative, provided each link’s inertia matrix and the transformation matrices
  • Option to compile these functions to speedy Cython implementations
  • Operational space, joint space, floating, and sliding controllers provided with PyGame and VREP example scripts
  • Obstacle avoidance and dynamics adaptation add-ons with PyGame example scripts
  • Interfaces with VREP
  • Configuration files for one, two, and three link arms, as well as the UR5 and Jaco2 arms in VREP
  • Provides Python simulations of two and three link arms, with PyGame visualization
  • Path planning using first and second order filtering of the target and example scripts.

Structure

The ABR Control library is divided into three sections:

  1. Arm descriptions (and simulations)
  2. Robotic system interfaces
  3. Controllers

The big goal was to make all of these interchangeable, so that to run any permutation of them you just have to change which arm / interface / controller you’re importing.

To support a new arm, the user only needs to create a configuration file specifying the transforms and inertia matrices. Code for calculating the necessary functions of the arm will be symbolically derived using SymPy, and compiled to C using Cython for efficient run-time execution.

Interfaces provide send_forces and send_target_angles functions, to apply torques and put the arm in a target state, as well as a get_feedback function, which returns a dictionary of information about the current state of the arm (joint angles and velocities at a minimum).

Controllers provide a generate function, which take in current system state information and a target, and return a set of joint torques to apply to the robot arm.

VREP example

The easiest way to show it is with some code examples. So, once you’ve cloned and installed the repo, you can open up VREP and the jaco2.ttt model in the abr_control/arms/jaco2 folder, and to control it using an operational space controller you would run the following:

import numpy as np
from abr_control.arms import jaco2 as arm
from abr_control.controllers import OSC
from abr_control.interfaces import VREP

# initialize our robot config for the ur5
robot_config = arm.Config(use_cython=True, hand_attached=True)

# instantiate controller
ctrlr = OSC(robot_config, kp=200, vmax=0.5)

# create our VREP interface
interface = VREP(robot_config, dt=.001)
interface.connect()

target_xyz = np.array([0.2, 0.2, 0.2])
# set the target object's position in VREP
interface.set_xyz(name='target', xyz=target_xyz)

count = 0.0
while count < 1500:  # run for 1.5 simulated seconds
    # get joint angle and velocity feedback
    feedback = interface.get_feedback()
    # calculate the control signal
    u = ctrlr.generate(
        q=feedback['q'],
        dq=feedback['dq'],
        target_pos=target_xyz)
    # send forces into VREP, step the sim forward
    interface.send_forces(u)

    count += 1
interface.disconnect()

This is a minimal example of the examples/VREP/reaching.py code. To run it with a different arm, you can just change the from abr_control.arms import as line. The repo comes with the configuration files for the UR5 and a onelink VREP arm model as well.

PyGame example

I’ve also found the PyGame simulations of the 2 and 3 link arms very helpful for quickly testing new controllers and code, as an easy low overhead proof of concept sandbox. To run the threelink arm (which runs in Linux and Windows fine but I’ve heard has issues in Mac OS), with the operational space controller, you can run this script:

import numpy as np
from abr_control.arms import threelink as arm
from abr_control.interfaces import PyGame
from abr_control.controllers import OSC

# initialize our robot config
robot_config = arm.Config(use_cython=True)
# create our arm simulation
arm_sim = arm.ArmSim(robot_config)

# create an operational space controller
ctrlr = OSC(robot_config, kp=300, vmax=100,
            use_dJ=False, use_C=True)

def on_click(self, mouse_x, mouse_y):
    self.target[0] = self.mouse_x
    self.target[1] = self.mouse_y

# create our interface
interface = PyGame(robot_config, arm_sim, dt=.001, 
                   on_click=on_click)
interface.connect()

# create a target
feedback = interface.get_feedback()
target_xyz = robot_config.Tx('EE', feedback['q'])
interface.set_target(target_xyz)

try:
    while 1:
        # get arm feedback
        feedback = interface.get_feedback()
        hand_xyz = robot_config.Tx('EE', feedback['q'])

        # generate an operational space control signal
        u = ctrlr.generate(
            q=feedback['q'],
            dq=feedback['dq'],
            target_pos=target_xyz)

        new_target = interface.get_mousexy()
        if new_target is not None:
            target_xyz[0:2] = new_target
        interface.set_target(target_xyz)

        # apply the control signal, step the sim forward
        interface.send_forces(u)

finally:
    # stop and reset the simulation
    interface.disconnect()

The extra bits of code just set up a hook so that when you click on the PyGame display somewhere the target moves to that point.

So! Hopefully some people find this useful for their research! It should be as easy to set up as cloning the repo, installing the requirements and running the setup file, and then trying out the examples.

If you find a bug please file an issue! If you find a way to improve it please do so and make a PR! And if you’d like to use anything in the repo commercially, please contact me.

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Velocity limiting in operational space control

Recently, I was reading through an older paper on effective operational space control, talking specifically point to point control in operational space. The paper mentioned that even if you have a perfect model of the system, you’re going to run into trouble if you use just a basic PD formula to define your control signal in operational space:

u_x = k_p (\textbf{x}^* - \textbf{x}) - k_v \dot{\textbf{x}},

where \textbf{x} and \dot{\textbf{x}} are the system position and velocity in operational space, \textbf{x}^* is the target position, and k_p and k_v are gains.

If you define your operational space control signal like this, and then translate this signal into joint torques (using, for example, methods discussed in other posts), you’re going to see a very non-straight trajectory emerge in larger movements as a result of “actuator saturation, and bandwidth and velocity limitations”. In the example of a standard robot, you might run into issues with your motors not being able to actually generate the torques that have been specified, the frequency of control and feedback might not be sufficient, and you could hit hard constraints on system velocity. The solution to this problem was presented in this 1987 paper by Dr. Oussama Khatib, and is pretty slick and very useful, so I thought I’d write it up here for any other unfortunate souls wandering around in ignorance. First though, here’s what it looks like to move large point to point distances without velocity limiting:

As you can see, the system isn’t moving in a straight line, which can be very aggravating if you’ve worked and reworked out the equations and double checked all your parameters, etc etc. A few things, first, when working with simulations it’s easy to forget how ridiculously fast this actually would be in real-time. Even though it takes a minute to simulate the above movement, in real-time, is happening over the course of 200ms. Taking that into account, this is pretty good. Also, there’s an obvious solution here, slow down your movement. The source of this problem is largely that all of the motors are not able to apply the torques specified and move at the required speed. Some of the motors have a lot less mass to throw around and will be able to move at the specified torques, but not all. Hence the not straight trajectory.

You can of course drop the gains on your PD signal, but that’s not really a great methodical solution. So, what can we do?

Well, if we rearrange the PD control signal specified above into

u_x = k_v (\dot{\textbf{x}}^* - \dot{\textbf{x}}),

where \dot{\textbf{x}}^* is the desired velocity, we see that this signal can be interpreted as a pure velocity servo-control signal, with velocity gain k_v and a desired velocity

\dot{\textbf{x}}^* = \frac{k_p}{k_v}(\textbf{x}^* - \textbf{x}).

When things are in this form, it becomes a bit more clear what we have to do: limit the desired velocity to be at most some specified maximum velocity of the end-effector, V_\textrm{max}. This value should be low enough that the transformation into joint torques doesn’t result in anything larger than the actuators can generate.

Taking V_\textrm{max}, what we want is to clip the magnitude of the control signal to be V_\textrm{max} if it’s ever larger (in positive or negative directions), and to be equal to \frac{kp}{kv}(\textbf{x}^* - \textbf{x}) otherwise. The math for this works out such that we can accomplish this with a control signal of the form:

\textbf{u}_\textbf{x} = -k_v (\dot{\textbf{x}} + \textrm{sat}\left(\frac{V_\textrm{max}}{\lambda |\tilde{\textbf{x}}|} \right) \lambda \tilde{\textbf{x}}),

where \lambda = \frac{k_p}{k_v} , \tilde{\textbf{x}} = \textbf{x} - \textbf{x}^*, and \textrm{sat} is the saturation function, such that

\textrm{sat}(y) = \left\{ \begin{array}{cc} |y| \leq 1 & \Rightarrow y \\ |y| > 1 & \Rightarrow 1 \end{array} \right.

where |y| is the absolute value of y, and is applied element wise to the vector \tilde{\textbf{x}} in the control signal.

As a result of using this saturation function, the control signal behaves differently depending on whether or not \dot{\textbf{x}}^* > V_\textrm{max}:

\textbf{u}_\textbf{x} = \left\{ \begin{array}{cc} \dot{\textbf{x}}^* \geq V_\textrm{max} & \Rightarrow -k_v (\dot{\textbf{x}} + V_\textbf{max} \textrm{sgn}(\tilde{\textbf{x}})) \\ \dot{\textbf{x}}^* < V_\textrm{max} & \Rightarrow -k_v \dot{\textbf{x}} + k_p \tilde{\textbf{x}} \end{array} \right.

where \textrm{sgn}(y) is a function that returns -1 if y < 0 and 1 if y \geq 0, and is again applied element-wise to vectors. Note that the control signal in the second condition is equivalent to our original PD control signal k_p(\textbf{x}^* - \textbf{x}) - k_v \dot{\textbf{x}}. If you’re wondering about negative signs make sure you note that \tilde{\textbf{x}} = \textbf{x} - \textbf{x}^* and not \textbf{x}^* - \textbf{x}, as you might assume.

So now the control signal is behaving exactly as desired! Moves the system towards the target, but no faster than the specified maximum velocity. Now our trajectories look like this:

So those are starting to look a lot better! The first thing you’ll notice is that this is a fair bit slower of a movement. Well, actually, it’s waaaayyyy slower because the playback speed here is 4x faster than in that first animation, and this is a movement over 2s. Which has pros and cons, con: it’s slower, pro: it’s straighter, and you’re less likely to be murdered by it. When you move from simulations to real systems that latter point really moves way up the priority list.

Second thing to notice, the system seems to be minimising the error along one dimension, and then along the next, and then arrives at the target. What’s going on?  Because the error along each of the (x,y,z) dimensions isn’t the same, when speed gets clipped along one of the dimensions you’re no longer going to be moving in a straight line directly to the target. To address this, we’re going to add a scaling term whenever clipping happens, such that you reduce the speed you move along each dimension by the same ratio, so that you’re still moving in a straight line.

It’s a liiiiittle bit more complicated than that, but not much. First, we’ll calculate the values being passed in to the saturation function for each (x,y,z) dimension. We’ll then check to see if any of them are going to get clipped, and if there’s more than one that saturates we’ll find the one that is affected the most. After we’ve identified which dimension it is, we go through and calculate what the control signal would have been without velocity limiting, and what it will be now with velocity limiting. This scaling term tells us how much the control signal was reduced, and we can then use it to reduce the control signals of the other dimensions by the same amount. These other dimensions might still saturate, though, so we have to recalculate the saturation function for them once they’ve been scaled. Here’s what this all looks like in code:

# implement velocity limiting
lamb = kp / kv
x_tilde = xyz - target_xyz
sat = vmax / (lamb * np.abs(x_tilde))
scale = np.ones(3)
if np.any(sat < 1):
    index = np.argmin(sat)
    unclipped = kp * x_tilde[index]
    clipped = kv * vmax * np.sign(x_tilde[index])
    scale = np.ones(3) * clipped / unclipped
    scale[index] = 1
u_xyz = -kv * (dx + np.clip(sat / scale, 0, 1) *
               scale * lamb * x_tilde)
 

And now, finally, we start getting the trajectories that we’ve been wanting the whole time:

And finally we can rest easy, knowing that our robot is moving at a reasonable speed along a direct path to its goals. Wherever you’d like to use this neato ‘ish you should be able to just paste in the above code, define your vmax, kp, and kv values and be good to go!

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Dynamic movement primitives part 3: Rhythmic movements

So far we’ve looked at using DMPs for discrete movements, but as I briefly mentioned it’s also possible to use them to perform rhythmic movements. In this post we’re going to look at the implementation of rhythmic DMPs and see exactly how it’s done. It’s actually pretty straightforward, which is always nich. We’ll go through everything that has to change and then see a couple of different applications of rhythmic DMPs. Again, all the code for the DMPs and arm control implementations can be found up on my Github.

Obtaining consistent and repeatable basis function activation

We’ll start with the canonical system. In the discrete case our canonical system (which drives the activation of the basis functions) decayed from 1 to 0 and then we were all done. In the rhythmic case we want our system to repeat indefinitely, so we need a reliable way of continuously activating the basis functions in the same order. One function that may come to mind that reliably repeats is the cosine function. But how to use the cosine function, exactly?

The idea is that we’ll lay out our basis functions in the range from 0 to 2\pi, and we’ll set the canonical system to be ever increasing linearly. Then we’ll use the difference between the canonical system state and each of the center points as the value we pass in to our cosine function. Because the cosine function repeats at 2\pi we’ll get a nice repeating spread of basis function activations. We’ll then throw these values through our Gaussian equation (with the gain and bias terms) and we’ll be done! Here’s the equation:

\psi = \textrm{exp}(h * \textrm{cos}(x - c) - 1),
where x is the state of the canonical system, c is the basis function center point, and h is a gain term controlling the variance of the Gaussian. And here’s a picture of the activations of three basis functions with centers spread out evenly between 0 and 2\pi:

gauss_rhythmic

Here’s a picture of the basis function activations on a longer time scale:

gauss_rhythmic_longer

As long as our canonical system increases at a steady pace the basis functions will continue to activate in a reliable and repeatable way. As mentioned, to get the canonical system to increase at a steady pace we simply give it linear dynamics:

\dot{x} = 1
The placement of the center points of the rhythmic system is a lot easier than in the discrete case because the rhythmic canonical system dynamics are linear.

Other differences between discrete and rhythmic

In the actual implementation of the rhythmic system there are a couple of other differences that you need to be aware of. The first is that there is no diminishing term in the rhythmic system, whereas there is in the discrete case.

The second is how to go about establishing goal states when imitating an path. We’re going to assume that whatever path is passed in to us is going to be a rhythmic pattern, and then goal state is going to be set as the center point of the desired trajectory. So for rhythmic systems the ‘goal’ is actually more like a center point for the trajectory.

And that’s pretty much it! If you look through the code that I have up for the rhythmic DMP subclass you’ll see that only a handful of functions needed to be redefined, the rest is the same! Well that’s great, let’s look at some applications.

Example

I was thinking of different examples that would be interesting to see of the rhythmic DMPs, and after a little consideration the most obvious application of rhythmic DMPs is really to a system that does something like walking. In the spinal cord of animals there are circuits which are known as central pattern generators (CPGs), and when stimulated these have been shown to generate rhythmic, repeated movements (as described in Principles of rhythmic motor pattern generation and other papers). Let’s go ahead and build our own CPG here using DMPs. I don’t have a simulation of a set of legs, however, so instead we’ll look at getting a single 3-link arm to reproduce a pattern of behaviour that you’d expect in a leg that is walking.

To do this, I’m going to need to specify the trajectories for the three joints of the arm, and I’ll be controlling the system in joint space, using the generalized coordinates controller, rather than the operational space controller used in the discrete DMP examples for controlling the end-effector position. So that’s one thing. Another thing is that I’m going to need the kinematics of leg joints during motion. After a quick search of the web I found this presentation from Simon Fraser University which has the following images:

leg_rhythms

Which is some very useful information! I just need to transfer this into a Numpy vector that I can feed into the system and convert degrees to radians and we should be good to go! To get the information out of the graph, use your favorite data stripper, I used http://arohatgi.info/WebPlotDigitizer/app/.

I also had to do a bit of a shuffle with the trajectories provided to make it look right on the arm. The hip to shoulder joint maps fine, but for the knee to elbow the flexion and extension are reversed, and for the wrist to foot the 0 angle for the foot is straight out. Once those have been accounted for, though, everything works great. Here is an animation of a single leg walking along, if you use your imagination you can just picture a happy-go-lucky torso attached to this leg whistling while he gets his very human-like gait on:

leg_walking

And there you go! It’s neat how straightforward that was, once you have the data of the system you want to model. It shows the power of DMPs for coordinating multiple degrees of freedom quickly and easily. Also something that’s worth pointing out once again is that this is a force based controller. We were able to go from a kinematic description of the movement we wanted to a reliable system generating torques. It’s another good example of the dexterity of dynamic movement primitives.

You can see the code for everything here up online on my github control repo on the walking_demo branch. To run the code you should run:

python run.py

If you have any questions or trouble running the code please contact me.

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Dynamic movement primitives part 2: Controlling end-effector trajectories

The dynamic movement primitive (DMP) framework was designed for trajectory control. It so happens that in previous posts we’ve built up to having several arm simulations that are ripe for throwing a trajectory controller on top, and that’s what we’ll do in this post. The system that we will be controlling here is the 3 link arm model with an operational space controller (OSC) that translates end-effector forces into joint torques. The DMPs here will be controlling the (x,y) trajectory of the hand, and the OSC will take care of turning the desired hand forces into torques that can be applied to the arm. All of the code used to generate the animations throughout this post can of course be found up on my github (to run play around with variants of python run.py arm3 dmp write).

Controlling a 3 link arm with DMPs
We have our 3 link arm and its OSC controller; this whole setup we’ll collectively refer to as ‘the plant’ throughout this post. We are going to pass in some (x,y) force signal to the plant, and the plant will carry it out. Additionally we’ll get a feedback signal with the (x,y) position of the hand. At the same time, we also have a DMP system that’s doing its own thing, tracing out a desired trajectory in (x,y) space. We have to tie these two systems together.

To do this is easy, we’ll generate the control signal for the plant from our DMP system simply by measuring the difference between the state of our DMP system and the plant state, use that to drive the plant to the state of the DMP system. Formally,

u = k_p(y_{\textrm{DMP}} - y)

where y_{\textrm{DMP}} is the state of the DMP system, y is the state of the plant, and k_p and is the position error gain term.

Once we have this, we just go ahead and step our DMP system forward and make sure the gain values on the control signal are high enough that the plant follows the DMP’s trajectory. And that’s pretty much it, just run the DMP system to the end of the trajectory and then stop your simulation.

To give a demonstration of DMP control I’ve set up the DMP system to follow the same number trajectories that the SPAUN arm followed. As you can see the combination of DMPs and operational space control is much more effective than my previous implementation.

Incorporating system feedback

One of the issues in implementing the control above is that we have to be careful about how quickly the DMP trajectory moves, because while the DMP system isn’t constrained by any physical dynamics, the plant is. Depending on the size of the movement the DMP trajectory may be moving a foot a second or an inch a second. You can see above that the arm doesn’t fully draw out the desired trajectories in places where the DMP system moved too quickly in and out and sharp corners. The only way to remedy this without feedback is to have the DMP system move more slowly throughout the entire trajectory. What would be nice, instead, would be to just say ‘go as fast as you can, as long as the plant state is within some threshold distance of you’, and this is where system feedback comes in.

It’s actually very straightforward to implement this using system feedback: If the plant state drifts away from the state of the DMPs, slow down the execution speed of the DMP to allow the plant time to catch up. The do this we just have to multiply the DMP timestep dt by a new term:

1 / (1 + \alpha_{\textrm{err}}(y_{\textrm{plant}} - y_{\textrm{DMP}})).

All this new term does is slow down the canonical system when there’s an error, you can think of it as a scaling on the time step. Additionally, the sensitivity of this term can be modulated the scaling term \alpha_{\textrm{err}} on the difference between the plant and DMP states.

We can get an idea of how this affects the system by looking at the dynamics of the canonical system when an error term is introduced mid-run:

CSwitherror
When the error is introduced the dynamics of the system slow down, great! Lets look at an example comparing execution with and without this feedback term. Here’s the system drawing the number 3 without any feedback incorporation:

and here’s the system drawing the number 3 with the feedback term included:


These two examples are a pretty good case for including the feedback term into your DMP system. You can still see in the second case that the specified trajectory isn’t traced out exactly, but if that’s what you’re shooting for you can just crank up the \alpha_{\textrm{err}} to make the DMP timestep really slow down whenever the DMP gets ahead of the plant at all.

Interpolating trajectories for imitation

When imitating trajectories there can be some issues with having enough sample points and how to fit them to the canonical system’s timeframe, they’re not difficult to get around but I thought I would go over what I did here. The approach I took was to always run the canonical system for 1 second, and whenever a trajectory is passed in that should be imitated to scale the x-axis of the trajectory such that it’s between 0 and 1. Then I shove it into an interpolator and use the resulting function to generate an abundance of nicely spaced sample points for the DMP imitator to match. Here’s the code for that:

# generate function to interpolate the desired trajectory
import scipy.interpolate

path = np.zeros((self.dmps, self.timesteps))
x = np.linspace(0, self.cs.run_time, y_des.shape[1])

for d in range(self.dmps):

    # create interpolation function
    path_gen = scipy.interpolate.interp1d(x, y_des[d])

    # create evenly spaced sample points of desired trajectory
    for t in range(self.timesteps):
        path[d, t] = path_gen(t * self.dt)

y_des = path

Direct trajectory control vs DMP based control

Now, using the above described interpolation function we can just directly use its output to guide our system. And, in fact, when we do this we get very precise control of the end-effector, more precise than the DMP control, as it happens. The reason for this is because our DMP system is approximating the desired trajectory and with a set of basis functions, and some accuracy is being lost in this approximation.

So if we instead use the interpolation function to drive the plant we can get exactly the points that we specified. The times when this comes up especially are when the trajectories that you’re trying to imitate are especially complicated. There are ways to address this with DMPs by placing your basis functions more appropriately, but if you’re just looking for the exact replication of an input trajectory (as often people are) this is a simpler way to go. You can see the execution of this in the trace.py code up on my github. Here’s a comparison of a single word drawn using the interpolation function:

draw_word_traj

and here’s the same word drawn using a DMP system with 1,000 basis function per DOF:

draw_word_dmp
We can see that just using the interpolation function here gives us the exact path that we specified, where using DMPs we have some error, and this error increases with the size of the desired trajectory. But! That’s for exactly following a given trajectory, which is often not the case. The strength of the DMP framework is that the trajectory is a dynamical system. This lets us do simple things to get really neat performance, like scale the trajectory spatially on the fly simply by changing the goal, rather than rescaling the entire trajectory:

Conclusions

Some basic examples of using DMPs to control the end-effector trajectory of an arm with operational space control were gone over here, and you can see that they work really nicely together. I like when things build like this. We also saw that power of DMPs in this situation is in their generalizability, and not in exact reproduction of a given path. If I have a single complex trajectory that I only want the end-effector to follow once then I’m going to be better off just interpolating that trajectory and feeding the coordinates into the arm controller rather than go through the whole process of setting up the DMPs.

Drawing words, though, is just one basic example of using the DMP framework. It’s a very simple application and really doesn’t do justice to the flexibility and power of DMPs. Other example applications include things like playing ping pong. This is done by creating a desired trajectory showing the robot how to swing a ping pong paddle, and then using a vision system to track the current location of the incoming ping pong ball and changing the target of the movement to compensate dynamically. There’s also some really awesome stuff with object avoidance, that is implemented by adding another term with some simple dynamics to the DMP. Discussed here, basically you just have another system that moves you away from the object with a strength relative to your distance from the object. You can also use DMPs to control gain terms on your PD control signal, which is useful for things like object manipulation.

And of course I haven’t touched on rhythmic DMPs or learning with DMPs at all, and those are both also really interesting topics! But this serves as a decent introduction to the whole area, which has been developed in the Schaal lab over the last decade or so. I recommend further reading with some of these papers if you’re interested, there are a ton of neat ways to apply the DMP framework! And, again, the code for everything here is up on my github in the control and pydmps repositories.

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Robot control part 5: Controlling in the null space

In the last post, I went through how to build an operational space controller. It was surprisingly easy after we’ve worked through all the other posts. But maybe that was a little too easy for you. Maybe you want to do something more interesting like implement more than one controller at the same time. In this post we’ll go through how to work inside the null space of a controller to implement several seperate controllers simultaneously without interference.
Buckle up.

Null space forces

The last example comprises the basics of operational space control; describe the system, calculate the system dynamics, transform desired forces from an operational space to the generalized coordinates, and build the control signal to cancel out the undesired system dynamics. Basic operational space control works quite well, but it is not uncommon to have several control goals at once; such as `move the end-effector to this position’ (primary goal), and `keep the elbow raised high’ (secondary goal) in the control of a robot arm.

If the operational space can also serve as generalized coordinates, i.e. if the system state specified in operational space constrains all of the degrees of freedom of the robot, then there is nothing that can be done without affecting the performance of the primary controller. In the case of controlling a two-link robot arm this is the case. The end-effector Cartesian space (chosen as the operational space) could also be a generalized coordinates system, because a specific (x,y) position fully constrains the position of the arm.

But often when using operational space control for more complex robots this is not the case. In these situations, the forces controlled in operational space have fewer dimensions than the robot has degrees of freedom, and so it is possible to accomplish the primary goal in a number of ways. The null space of this primary controller is the region of state space where there is a redundancy of solutions; the system can move in a number of ways and still not affect the completion of the goals of the primary controller. An example of this is all the different configurations the elbow can be in while a person moves their hand in a straight line. In these situations, a secondary controller can be created to operate in the null space of the primary controller, and the full control signal sent to the system is a sum of the primary control signal and a filtered version of the secondary control signal. In this section the derivation of the null-space filter will be worked through for a system with only a primary and secondary controller, but note that the process can be applied iteratively for systems with further controllers.

The filtering of the secondary control signal means that the secondary controller’s goals will only be accomplished if it is possible to do so without affecting the performance of the first controller. In other words, the secondary controller must operate in the null space of the first controller. Denote the primary operational space control signal, e.g. the control signal defined in the previous post, as \textbf{u}_{\textbf{x}} and the control signal from the secondary controller \textbf{u}_{\textrm{null}}. Define the force to apply to the system

\textbf{u} = \textbf{u}_{\textbf{x}} + (\textbf{I} - \textbf{J}_{ee}^T(\textbf{q}) \; \textbf{J}_{ee}^{T+}(\textbf{q})) \textbf{u}_{\textrm{null}},

where \textbf{J}_{ee}^{T+}(\textbf{q}) is the pseudo-inverse of \textbf{J}_{ee}^T(\textbf{q}).

Examining the filtering term that was added,

(\textbf{I} - \textbf{J}_{ee}^T(\textbf{q}) \textbf{J}_{ee}^{T+}(\textbf{q})) \textbf{u}_{\textrm{null}},

it can be seen that the Jacobian transpose multiplied by its pseudo-inverse will be 1’s all along the diagonal, except in the null space. This means that \textbf{u}_{\textrm{null}} is subtracted from itself everywhere that affects the operational space movement and is left to apply any arbitrary control signal in the null space of the primary controller.

Unfortunately, this initial set up does not adequately filter out the effects of forces that might be generated by the secondary controller. The Jacobian is defined as a relationship between the velocities of two spaces, and so operating in the null space defined by the Jacobian ensures that no velocities are applied in operational space, but the required filter must also prevent any accelerations from affecting movement in operational space. The standard Jacobian pseudo-inverse null space is a velocity null space, and so a filter built using it will allow forces affecting the system’s acceleration to still get through. What is required is a pseudo-inverse Jacobian defined to filter signals through an acceleration null space.

To acquire this acceleration filter, our control signal will be substituted into the equation for acceleration in the operational space, which, after cancelling out gravity effects with the control signal and removing the unmodeled dynamics, gives

\ddot{\textbf{x}} = \textbf{J}_{ee}(\textbf{q}) \textbf{M}^{-1}(\textbf{q}) [\textbf{J}_{ee}^T(\textbf{q}) \; \textbf{M}_{\textbf{x}_{ee}}(\textbf{q}) \; \ddot{\textbf{x}}_\textrm{des} - (\textbf{I} - \textbf{J}_{ee}^T(\textbf{q})\;\textbf{J}_{ee}^{T+}(\textbf{q}))\;\textbf{u}_{\textrm{null}}].

Rewriting this to separate the secondary controller into its own term

\ddot{\textbf{x}} = \textbf{J}_{ee}(\textbf{q}) \textbf{M}^{-1}(\textbf{q}) \textbf{J}_{ee}^T(\textbf{q}) \; \textbf{M}_{\textbf{x}_{ee}}(\textbf{q}) \; \ddot{\textbf{x}}_\textrm{des} - \textbf{J}_{ee}(\textbf{q}) \textbf{M}^{-1}(\textbf{q})[\textbf{I} - \textbf{J}_{ee}^T(\textbf{q})\;\textbf{J}_{ee}^{T+}(\textbf{q})]\;\textbf{u}_{\textrm{null}},

it becomes clear that to not cause any unwanted movement in operational space the second term must be zero.

There is only one free term left in the second term, and that is the pseudo-inverse. There are numerous different pseudo-inverses that can be chosen for a given situation, and here what is required is to engineer a pseudo-inverse such that the term multiplying \textbf{u}_{\textrm{null}} in the above operational space acceleration equation is guaranteed to go to zero.

\textbf{J}_{ee}(\textbf{q})\textbf{M}^{-1}(\textbf{q}) [\textbf{I} - \textbf{J}_{ee}^T (\textbf{q})\textbf{J}_{ee}^{T+}(\textbf{q})] \textbf{u}_{\textrm{null}} = \textbf{0},

this needs to be true for all \textbf{u}_{\textrm{null}}, so it can be removed,

\textbf{J}_{ee} (\textbf{q}) \; \textbf{M}^{-1}(\textbf{q}) [\textbf{1} - \textbf{J}_{ee}^T (\textbf{q}) \; \textbf{J}_{ee}^{T+} (\textbf{q})] = \textbf{0},

\textbf{J}_{ee}(\textbf{q}) \; \textbf{M}^{-1}(\textbf{q}) = \textbf{J}_{ee}(\textbf{q}) \; \textbf{M}^{-1}(\textbf{q}) \; \textbf{J}_{ee}^T(\textbf{q})\; \textbf{J}_{ee}^{T+}(\textbf{q}),

substituting in our inertia matrix for operational space, which defines

\textbf{J}_{ee} (\textbf{q}) \textbf{M}^{-1} (\textbf{q}) = \textbf{M}_{\textbf{x}_{ee}}^{-1} (\textbf{q}) \textbf{J}_{ee}^{T+} (\textbf{q}),

\textbf{J}_{ee}^{T+}(\textbf{q}) = \textbf{M}_{\textbf{x}_{ee}} (\textbf{q}) \; \textbf{J}_{ee}(\textbf{q}) \; \textbf{M}^{-1}(\textbf{q}).

This specific Jacobian inverse was presented in this 1987 paper by Dr. Oussama Khatib and is called the `dynamically consistent generalized inverse’. Using this psuedo-inverse guarantees that any signal coming from the secondary controller will not affect movement in the primary controller’s operational space. Just as a side-note, the name ‘pseudo-inverse’ is a bit of misnomer here, since it doesn’t try to produce the identity when multiplied by the original Jacobian transpose, but hey. That’s what they’re calling it.

The null space filter cancels out the acceleration effects of forces in operational space from a signal that is being applied as part of the control system. But it can also be used to cancel out the effects of any unwanted signal that can be modeled. Given some undesirable force signal interfering with the system that can be effectively modeled, a null space filtering term can be implemented to cancel it out. The control signal in this case, with one primary operational space controller and a null space filter for the undesired force, looks like:

\textbf{u} = \textbf{J}^T_{ee}(\textbf{q}) \; \textbf{M}_\textbf{x}(\textbf{q}) \; \ddot{\textbf{x}}_\textrm{des} - \textbf{g}(\textbf{q}) - \textbf{J}^T_{ee}(\textbf{q}) \;\textbf{J}^{T+}_{ee}(\textbf{q}) \; \textbf{u}_{\textrm{undesired force}}.

We did it! This will now allow a high-priority operational space controller to execute without interference from a secondary controller operating in its null space to complete it’s own set of goals (when possible).

Example:

Given a three link arm (revolute-revolute-revolute) operating in the (x,z) plane, shown below:

rotation and distance2

this example will construct the control system for a primary controller controlling the end-effector and a secondary controller working to keep the arm near its joint angles’ default resting positions.

Let the system state be \textbf{q} = [q_0, q_1, q_2]^T with default positions \textbf{q}^0 = \left[\frac{\pi}{3}, \frac{\pi}{4}, \frac{\pi}{4} \right]^T. The control signal of the secondary controller is the difference between the target state and the current system state

\textbf{u}_{\textrm{null}} = k_{p_{\textrm{null}}}(\textbf{q}^0 - \textbf{q}),

where k_{p_\textrm{null}} is a gain term.

Let the centres of mass be

\textrm{com}_0 = \left[ \begin{array}{c} \frac{1}{2}cos(q_0) \\ 0 \\ \frac{1}{2}sin(q_0) \end{array} \right], \;\;\;\; \textrm{com}_1 = \left[ \begin{array}{c} \frac{1}{4}cos(q_1) \\ 0 \\ \frac{1}{4}sin(q_1) \end{array} \right] \;\;\;\; \textrm{com}_2 = \left[ \begin{array}{c} \frac{1}{2}cos(q_2) \\ 0 \\ \frac{1}{4} sin (q_2) \end{array} \right],

the Jacobians for the COMs are

\textbf{J}_0(\textbf{q}) = \left[ \begin{array}{ccc} -\frac{1}{2} sin(q_0) & 0 & 0 \\ 0 & 0 & 0 \\ \frac{1}{2} cos(q_0) & 0 & 0 \\ 0 & 0 & 0 \\ 1 & 0 & 0 \\ 0 & 0 & 0 \end{array} \right],

\textbf{J}_1(\textbf{q}) = \left[ \begin{array}{ccc} -L_0sin(q_0) - \frac{1}{4}sin(q_{01}) & -\frac{1}{4}sin(q_{01}) & 0 \\ 0 & 0 & 0 \\ L_0 cos(q_0) + \frac{1}{4} cos(q_{01})& \frac{1}{4} cos(q_{01}) & 0 \\ 0 & 0 & 0 \\ 1 & 1 & 0 \\ 0 & 0 & 0 \end{array} \right]

\textbf{J}_2(\textbf{q}) = \left[ \begin{array}{ccc} -L_0sin(q_0) - L_1sin(q_{01}) - \frac{1}{2}sin(q_{012}) & -L_1sin(q_{01}) - \frac{1}{2}sin(q_{012}) & - \frac{1}{2}sin(q_{012}) \\ 0 & 0 & 0 \\ L_0 cos(q_0) + L_1 cos(q_{01}) + \frac{1}{4}cos(q_{012}) & L_1 cos(q_{01}) + \frac{1}{4} cos(q_{012}) & \frac{1}{4}cos(q_{012}) \\ 0 & 0 & 0 \\ 1 & 1 & 1 \\ 0 & 0 & 0 \end{array} \right].

The Jacobian for the end-effector of this three link arm is

\textbf{J}_{ee} = \left[ \begin{array}{ccc} -L_0 sin(q_0) - L_1 sin(q_{01}) - L_2 sin(q_{012}) & - L_1 sin(q_{01}) - L_2 sin(q_{012}) & - L_2 sin(q_{012}) \\ L_0 cos(q_0) + L_1 cos(q_{01}) + L_2 cos(q_{012}) & L_1 cos(q_{01}) + L_2 cos(q_{012}) & L_2 cos(q_{012}), \end{array} \right]

where q_{01} = q_0 + q_1 and q_{012} = q_0 + q_1 + q_2.

Taking the control signal developed in Section~\ref{sec:exampleOS}

\textbf{u} = \textbf{J}^T_{ee}(\textbf{q}) \; \textbf{M}_{\textbf{x}_{ee}}(\textbf{q}) [k_p (\textbf{x}_{\textrm{des}} - \textbf{x}) + k_v (\dot{\textbf{x}}_{\textrm{des}} - \dot{\textbf{x}})] - \textbf{g}(\textbf{q}),

where \textbf{M}_{\textbf{x}_{ee}}(\textbf{q}) was defined in the previous post, and \textbf{g}(\textbf{q}) is defined two posts ago, and k_p and k_v are gain terms, usually set such that k_v = \sqrt{k_p}, and adding in the null space control signal and filter gives

\textbf{u} = \textbf{J}^T_{ee}(\textbf{q}) \; \textbf{M}_{\textbf{x}_{ee}}(\textbf{q}) [k_p (\textbf{x}_{\textrm{des}} - \textbf{x}) + k_v (\dot{\textbf{x}}_{\textrm{des}} - \dot{\textbf{x}})] - (\textbf{I} - \textbf{J}^T_{ee}(\textbf{q}) \textbf{J}^{T+}_{ee}(\textbf{q})) \textbf{u}_{\textrm{null}} - \textbf{g}(\textbf{q}),

where \textbf{J}^{T+}(\textbf{q}) is the dynamically consistent generalized inverse defined above, and \textbf{u}_{\textrm{null}} is our null space signal!

Conclusions

It’s a lot of math, but when you start to get a feel for it what’s really awesome is that this is it. We’re describing the whole system, and so by working with these equations we can get a super effective controller. Which is pretty cool. Especially in relation to other possible controllers.

Alright! We’ve now worked through all the basic theory for operational space control, it is time to get some implementations going.

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Robot control part 4: Operation space control

In this post we’ll look at operational space control and how to derive the control equations. I’d like to mention again that these posts have all come about as a result of me reading and working through Samir Menon’s operational space control tutorial, where he works through an implementation example on a revolute-prismatic-prismatic robot arm.

Generalized coordinates vs operational space

The term generalized coordinates refers to a characterization of the system that uniquely defines its configuration. For example, if our robot has 7 degrees of freedom, then there are 7 state variables, such that when all these variables are given we can fully account for the position of the robot. In the previous posts of this series we’ve been describing robotic arms in joint space, and for these systems joint space is an example of generalized coordinates. This means that if we know the angles of all of the joints, we can draw out exactly what position that robot is in. An example of a coordinate system that does not uniquely define the configuration of a robotic arm would be one that describes only the x position of the end-effector.

So generalized coordinates tell us everything we need to know about where the robot is, that’s great. The problem with generalized coordinates, though, is that planning trajectories in this space for tasks that we’re interested in performing tends not to be straight forward. For example, if we have a robotic arm, and we want to control the position of the end-effector, it’s not obvious how to control the position of the end-effector by specifying a trajectory for each of the arm’s joints to follow through joint space.

The idea behind operational space control is to abstract away from the generalized coordinates of the system and plan a trajectory in a coordinate system that is directly relevant to the task that we wish to perform. Going back to the common end-effector position control situation, we would like to operate our arm in 3D (x,y,z) Cartesian space. In this space, it’s obvious what trajectory to follow to move the end-effector between two positions (most of the time it will just be a straight line in each dimension). So our goal is to build a control system that lets us specify a trajectory in our task space and will transform this signal into generalized coordinates that it can then send out to the system for execution.

Operational space control of simple robot arm

Alright, we’re going to work through an example. The generalized coordinates for this example is going to be joint space, and the operational space is going to be the end-effector Cartesian coordinates relative to the a reference frame attached to the base. Recycling the robot from the second post in this series, here’s the set up we’ll be working with:

RR robot arm

Once again, we’re going to need to find the Jacobians for the end-effector of the robot. Fortunately, we’ve already done this:

\textbf{J} = \left[ \begin{array}{cc} -L_0 sin(\theta_0) - L_1 sin(\theta_0 + \theta_1) & - L_1 sin(\theta_0 + \theta_1) \\ L_0 cos(\theta_0) + L_1 cos(\theta_0 + \theta_1) & L_1 cos(\theta_0 + \theta_1) \\ 0 & 0 \\ 0 & 0 \\ 0 & 0 \\ 1 & 1 \end{array} \right]

Great! So now that we have \textbf{J}, we can go ahead and transform forces from end-effector (hand) space to joint space as we discussed in the second post:

\textbf{u} = \textbf{J}_{ee}^T(\textbf{q}) \; \textbf{F}_{\textbf{x}}.

Rewriting \textbf{F}_\textbf{x} as its component parts

\textbf{F}_{\textbf{x}} = \textbf{M}_{\textbf{x}_{ee}}(\textbf{q}) \; \ddot{\textbf{x}}_\textrm{des},

where \ddot{\textbf{x}} is end-effector acceleration, and \textbf{M}_{\textbf{x}_{ee}(\textbf{q})} is the inertia matrix in operational space. Unfortunately, this isn’t just the normal inertia matrix, so let’s take a look here at how to go about deriving it.

Inertia in operational space

Being able to calculate \textbf{M}(\textbf{q}) allows inertia to be cancelled out in joint-space by incorporating it into the control signal, but to cancel out the inertia of the system in operational space more work is still required. The first step will be calculating the acceleration in operational space. This can be found by taking the time derivative of our original Jacobian equation.

\frac{d}{d t}\dot{\textbf{x}} = \frac{d}{d t} (\textbf{J}_{ee}(\textbf{q}) \; \dot{\textbf{q}}),

\ddot{\textbf{x}} = \dot{\textbf{J}}_{ee}(\textbf{q}) \; \dot{\textbf{q}} + \textbf{J}_{ee} (\textbf{q})\; \ddot{\textbf{q}}.

Substituting in the dynamics of the system, as defined in the previous post, but ignoring the effects of gravity for now, gives:

\ddot{\textbf{x}} = \dot{\textbf{J}}_{ee}(\textbf{q}) \; \dot{\textbf{q}} + \textbf{J}_{ee} (\textbf{q})\; \textbf{M}^{-1}(\textbf{q}) [ \textbf{u} - \textbf{C}(\textbf{q}, \dot{\textbf{q}})].

Define the control signal

\textbf{u} = \textbf{J}_{ee}^T(\textbf{q}) \textbf{F}_\textbf{x},

where substituting in for \textbf{F}_\textbf{x}, the desired end-effector force, gives

\textbf{u} = \textbf{J}_{ee}^T(\textbf{q})\; \textbf{M}_{\textbf{x}_{ee}}(\textbf{q})\; \ddot{\textbf{x}}_\textrm{des},

where \ddot{\textbf{x}}_\textrm{des} denotes the desired end-effector acceleration. Substituting the above equation into our equation for acceleration in operational space gives

\ddot{\textbf{x}} = \dot{\textbf{J}}_{ee}(\textbf{q}) \; \dot{\textbf{q}} + \textbf{J}_{ee} (\textbf{q})\; \textbf{M}^{-1}(\textbf{q}) [ \textbf{J}_{ee}^T(\textbf{q})\; \textbf{M}_{\textbf{x}_{ee}}(\textbf{q})\; \ddot{\textbf{x}}_\textrm{des} - \textbf{C}(\textbf{q}, \dot{\textbf{q}})].

Rearranging terms leads to

\ddot{\textbf{x}} = \textbf{J}_{ee}(\textbf{q})\; \textbf{M}^{-1}(\textbf{q}) \; \textbf{J}_{ee}^T(\textbf{q})\; \textbf{M}_{\textbf{x}_{ee}}(\textbf{q})\; \ddot{\textbf{x}}_\textrm{des} + [\dot{\textbf{J}}_{ee}(\textbf{q}) \; \dot{\textbf{q}} - \textbf{J}_{ee}(\textbf{q})\textbf{M}^{-1}(\textbf{q}) \; \textbf{C}(\textbf{q}, \dot{\textbf{q}})],

the last term is ignored due to the complexity of modeling it, resulting in

\ddot{\textbf{x}} = \textbf{J}_{ee}(\textbf{q})\; \textbf{M}^{-1}(\textbf{q}) \textbf{J}_{ee}^T(\textbf{q})\; \textbf{M}_{\textbf{x}_{ee}}(\textbf{q})\; \ddot{\textbf{x}}_\textrm{des}.

At this point, to get the dynamics \ddot{\textbf{x}} to be equal to the desired acceleration \ddot{\textbf{x}}_\textrm{des}, the end-effector inertia matrix \textbf{M}_{\textbf{x}_{ee}} needs to be chosen carefully. By setting

\textbf{M}_{\textbf{x}_{ee}}(\textbf{q}) = [\textbf{J}_{ee}(\textbf{q}) \; \textbf{M}^{-1}(\textbf{q}) \; \textbf{J}_{ee}^T(\textbf{q})]^{-1},

we now get

\ddot{\textbf{x}} = \textbf{J}_{ee}(\textbf{q})\; \textbf{M}^{-1}(\textbf{q}) \textbf{J}_{ee}^T(\textbf{q})\; [\textbf{J}_{ee}(\textbf{q}) \; \textbf{M}^{-1}(\textbf{q}) \; \textbf{J}_{ee}^T(\textbf{q})]^{-1} \; \ddot{\textbf{x}}_\textrm{des},

\ddot{\textbf{x}} = \ddot{\textbf{x}}_\textrm{des}.

And that’s why and how the inertia matrix in operational space is defined!

The whole signal

Going back to the control signal we were building, let’s now add in a term to cancel the effects of gravity in joint space. This gives

\textbf{u} = \textbf{J}_{ee}^T(\textbf{q}) \textbf{M}_{\textbf{x}_{ee}}(\textbf{q}) \ddot{\textbf{x}}_\textrm{des} + \textbf{g}(\textbf{q}),

where \textbf{g}(\textbf{q}) is the same as defined in the previous post. This controller converts desired end-effector acceleration into torque commands, and compensates for inertia and gravity.

Defining a basic PD controller in operational space

\ddot{\textbf{x}}_\textrm{des} = k_p (\textbf{x}_{\textrm{des}} - \textbf{x}) + k_v (\dot{\textbf{x}}_{\textrm{des}} - \dot{\textbf{x}}),

and the full equation for the operational space control signal in joint space is:

\textbf{u} = \textbf{J}_{ee}^T(\textbf{q}) \; \textbf{M}_{\textbf{x}_{ee}}(\textbf{q}) [k_p (\textbf{x}_{\textrm{des}} - \textbf{x}) + k_v (\dot{\textbf{x}}_{\textrm{des}} - \dot{\textbf{x}})] + \textbf{g}(\textbf{q}).

Hurray! That was relatively simple. The great thing about this, though, is that it’s the same process for any robot arm! So go out there and start building controllers! Find your robot’s mass matrix and gravity term in generalized coordinates, the Jacobian for the end effector, and you’re in business.

Conclusions

So, this feels a little anticlimactic without an actual simulation / implementation of operational space, but don’t worry! As avid readers (haha) will remember, a while back I worked out how to import some very realistic MapleSim arm simulations into Python for use with some Python controllers. This seems a perfect application opportunity, so that’s next! A good chance to work through writing the controllers for different arms and also a chance to play with controllers operating in null spaces and all the like.

Actual simulation implementations will also be a good chance to play with trying to incorporate those other force terms into the control equation, and get to see the results without worrying about breaking an actual robot. In actual robots a lot of the time you leave out anything where your model might be inaccurate because the last thing to do is falsely compensate for some forces and end up injecting energy into your system, making it unstable.

There’s still some more theory to work through though, so I’d like to do that before I get to implementing simulations. One more theory post, and then we’ll get back to code!

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Robot control part 3: Accounting for mass and gravity

In the exciting previous post we looked at how to go about generating a Jacobian matrix, which we could use to transformation both from joint angle velocities to end-effector velocities, and from desired end-effector forces into joint angle torques. I briefly mentioned right at the end that using just this force transformation to build your control signal was only appropriate for very simple systems that didn’t have to account for things like arm-link mass or gravity.

In general, however, mass and gravity must be accounted for and cancelled out. The full dynamics of a robot arm are

\textbf{M}(\textbf{q}) \ddot{\textbf{q}} = (\textbf{u} - \textbf{C}(\textbf{q}, \dot{\textbf{q}}) - \textbf{g}(\textbf{q})) ,

where \ddot{\textbf{q}} is joint angle acceleration, \textbf{u} is the control signal (specifying torque), \textbf{C}(\textbf{q}, \dot{\textbf{q}}) is a function describing the Coriolis and centrifugal effects, \textbf{g}(\textbf{q}) is the effect of gravity in joint space, and \textbf{M} is the mass matrix of the system in joint space.

There are a lot of terms involved in the system acceleration, so while the Jacobian can be used to transform forces between coordinate systems it is clear that just setting the control signal \textbf{u} = \textbf{J}_{ee}^T (\textbf{q})\textbf{F}_\textbf{x} is not sufficient, because a lot of the dynamics affecting acceleration aren’t accounted for. In this section an effective PD controller operating in joint space will be developed that will allow for more precise control by cancelling out unwanted acceleration terms. To do this the effects of inertia and gravity need to be calculated.

Accounting for inertia

The fact that systems have mass is a pain in our controller’s side because it introduces inertia into our system, making control of how the system will move at any given point in time more difficult. Mass can be thought of as an object’s unwillingness to respond to applied forces. The heavier something is, the more resistant it is to acceleration, and the force required to move a system along a desired trajectory depends on both the object’s mass and its current acceleration.

To effectively control a system, the system inertia needs to be calculated so that it can be included in the control signal and cancelled out.


3d_2_linkGiven the robot arm above, operating in the (x,z) plane, with the y axis extending into the picture where the yellow circles represent each links centre-of-mass (COM). The position of each link is COM is defined relative to that link’s reference frame, and the goal is to figure out how much each link’s mass will affect the system dynamics.

The first step is to transform the representation of each of the COM from Cartesian coordinates in the reference frame of their respective arm segments into terms of joint angles, such that the Jacobian for each COM can be calculated.

Let the COM positions relative to each segment’s coordinate frame be

\textrm{com}_0 = \left[ \begin{array}{c} \frac{1}{2}cos(q_0) \\ 0 \\ \frac{1}{2}sin(q_0) \end{array} \right], \;\;\;\; \textrm{com}_1 = \left[ \begin{array}{c} \frac{1}{4}cos(q_1) \\ 0 \\ \frac{1}{4}sin(q_1) \end{array} \right].

The first segment’s COM is already in base coordinates (since the first link and the base share the same coordinate frame), so all that is required is the position of the second link’s COM in the base reference frame, which can be done with the transformation matrix

^1_0\textbf{T} = \left[ \begin{array}{cccc} cos(q_1) & 0 & -sin(q_1) & L_0 cos(q_0) \\ 0 & 1 & 0 & 0 \\ sin(q_1) & 0 & cos(q_1) & L_0 sin(q_0) \\ 0 & 0 & 0 & 1 \end{array} \right].

Using ^1_0\textbf{T} to transform the \textrm{com}_1 gives

^1_0\textbf{T} \; \textrm{com}_1 = \left[ \begin{array}{cccc} cos(q_1) & 0 & -sin(q_1) & L_0 cos(q_0) \\ 0 & 1 & 0 & 0 \\ sin(q_1) & 0 & cos(q_1) & L_0 sin(q_0) \\ 0 & 0 & 0 & 1 \end{array} \right] \; \; \left[ \begin{array}{c} \frac{1}{4}cos(q_1) \\ 0 \\ \frac{1}{4}sin(q_1) \\ 1 \end{array} \right]

^1_0\textbf{T} \; \textrm{com}_1 = \left[ \begin{array}{c} L_0 cos(q_0) + \frac{1}{4}cos(q_0 + q_1) \\ 0 \\ L_0 sin(q_0) + \frac{1}{4} cos(q_0 + q_1) \\ 1 \end{array} \right].

To see the full computation worked out explicitly please see my previous robot control post.

Now that we have the COM positions in terms of joint angles, we can find the Jacobians for each point through our Jacobian equation:

\textbf{J} = \frac{\partial \textbf{x}}{\partial \textbf{q}}.

Using this for each link gives us:

\textbf{J}_0 = \left[ \begin{array}{cc} -\frac{1}{2}sin(q_0) & 0 \\ 0 & 0 \\ \frac{1}{2} cos(q_0) & 0 \\ 0 & 0 \\ 1 & 0 \\ 0 & 0 \end{array} \right]
\textbf{J}_1 = \left[ \begin{array}{cc} -L_0sin(q_0) -\frac{1}{4}sin(\theta_0 + q_1) & -\frac{1}{4} sin(q_0 + \theta_1) \\ 0 & 0 \\ L_0 cos(q_0) + \frac{1}{4}cos(q_0 + q_1) & \frac{1}{4} cos(q_0 +q_1) \\ 0 & 0 \\ 1 & 1 \\ 0 & 0 \end{array} \right].

Kinetic energy

The total energy of a system can be calculated as a sum of the energy introduced from each source. The Jacobians just derived will be used to calculate the kinetic energy each link generates during motion. Each link’s kinetic energy will be calculated and summed to get the total energy introduced into the system by the mass and configuration of each link.

Kinetic energy (KE) is one half of mass times velocity squared:

\textrm{KE} = \frac{1}{2} \; \dot{\textbf{x}}^T \textbf{M}_\textbf{x}(\textbf{q}) \; \dot{\textbf{x}},

where \textbf{M}_\textbf{x} is the mass matrix of the system, with the subscript \textbf{x} denoting that it is defined in Cartesian space, and \dot{\textbf{x}} is a velocity vector, where \dot{\textbf{x}} is of the form

\dot{\textbf{x}} = \left[ \begin{array}{c} \dot{x} \\ \dot{y} \\ \dot{z} \\ \dot{\omega_x} \\ \dot{\omega_y} \\ \dot{\omega_z} \end{array} \right],

and the mass matrix is structured

\textbf{M}_{\textbf{x}_i} (\textbf{q})= \left[ \begin{array}{cccccc} m_i & 0 & 0 & 0 & 0 & 0 \\ 0 & m_i & 0 & 0 & 0 & 0 \\ 0 & 0 & m_i & 0 & 0 & 0 \\ 0 & 0 & 0 & I_{xx} & I_{xy} & I_{xz} \\ 0 & 0 & 0 & I_{yx} & I_{yy} & I_{yz} \\ 0 & 0 & 0 & I_{zx} & I_{zy} & I_{zz} \end{array} \right],

where m_i is the mass of COM i, and the I_{ij} terms are the moments of inertia, which define the object’s resistance to change in angular velocity about the axes, the same way that the mass element defines the object’s resistance to changes in linear velocity.

As mentioned above, the mass matrix for the COM of each link is defined in Cartesian coordinates in its respective arm segment’s reference frame. The effects of mass need to be found in joint angle space, however, because that is where the controller operates. Looking at the summation of the KE introduced by each COM:

\textrm{KE} = \frac{1}{2} \; \Sigma_{i=0}^n ( \dot{\textbf{x}}_i^T \textbf{M}_{\textbf{x}_i}(\textbf{q}) \; \dot{\textbf{x}}_i),

and substituting in \dot{\textbf{x}} = \textbf{J} \; \dot{\textbf{q}},

\textrm{KE}_i \ \frac{1}{2} \; \Sigma_{i=0}^n (\dot{\textbf{q}}^T \; \textbf{J}_i^T \textbf{M}_{\textbf{x}_i}(\textbf{q})\textbf{J}_i \; \dot{\textbf{q}}),

 

and moving the \dot{\textbf{q}} terms outside the summation,

\textrm{KE}_i = \frac{1}{2} \; \dot{\textbf{q}}^T \; \Sigma_{i=0}^n (\textbf{J}_i^T \textbf{M}_{\textbf{x}_i}(\textbf{q}) \textbf{J}_i) \; \dot{\textbf{q}}.

Defining

\textbf{M}(\textbf{q}) = \Sigma_{i=0}^n \; \textbf{J}_i^T(\textbf{q}) \textbf{M}_{\textbf{x}_i}(\textbf{q}) \; \textbf{J}_i(\textbf{q}),

gives

\textrm{KE} = \frac{1}{2} \; \dot{\textbf{q}}^T \; \textbf{M}(\textbf{q}) \; \dot{\textbf{q}},

which is the equation for calculating kinetic energy in joint space. Thus, \textbf{M}(\textbf{q}) denotes the inertia matrix in joint space.

Now that we’ve successfully calculated the mass matrix of the system in joint space, we can incorporate it into our control signal and cancel out its effects on the system dynamics! On to the next problem!

Accounting for gravity

With the forces of inertia accounted for, we can now address the problem of gravity. To compensate for gravity the concept of conservation of energy (i.e. the work done by gravity is the same in all coordinate systems) will once again be pulled out. The controller operates by applying torque on joints, so it is necessary to be able to calculate the effect of gravity in joint space to cancel it out.

While the effect of gravity in joint space isn’t obvious, it is quite easily defined in Cartesian coordinates in the base frame of reference. Here, the work done by gravity is simply the summation of the distance each link’s center of mass has moved multiplied by the force of gravity. Where the force of gravity in Cartesian space is the mass of the object multiplied by -9.8m/s^2 along the z axis, the equation for the work done by gravity is written:

\textbf{W}_g = \Sigma^n_{i=0} (\textbf{F}_{g_i}^T \dot{\textbf{x}}_i),

where \textbf{F}_{g_i} is the force of gravity on the ith arm segment. Because of the conservation of energy, the equation for work is equivalent when calculated in joint space, substituting into the above equation with the equation for work:

\textbf{F}_\textbf{q}^T \dot{\textbf{q}} = \Sigma^n_{i=0} (\textbf{F}_{g_i}^T \dot{\textbf{x}}_i),

and then substitute in using \dot{\textbf{x}}_i = \textbf{J}_i(\textbf{q}) \; \dot{\textbf{q}},

\textbf{F}_\textbf{q}^T \dot{\textbf{q}} = \Sigma^n_{i=0} (\textbf{F}_{g_i}^T \textbf{J}_i(\textbf{q}) \; \dot{\textbf{q}}),

and cancelling out the \dot{\textbf{q}} terms on both sides,

\textbf{F}_\textbf{q}^T = \Sigma^n_{i=0} (\textbf{F}_{g_i}^T \textbf{J}_i(\textbf{q})),

\textbf{F}_\textbf{q} = \Sigma^n_{i=0} (\textbf{J}_i^T(\textbf{q}) \textbf{F}_{g_i}) = \textbf{g}(\textbf{q}),

which says that to find the effect of gravity in joint space simply multiply the mass of each link by its Jacobian, multiplied by the force of gravity in (x,y,z) space, and sum over each link. This summation gives the total effect of the gravity on the system.

Making a PD controller in joint space

We are now able to account for the energy in the system caused by inertia and gravity, great! Let’s use this to build a simple PD controller in joint space. Control should be very straight forward because once we cancel out the effects of gravity and inertia then we can almost pretend that the system behaves linearly. This means that we can also treat control of each of the joints independently, since their movements no longer affect one another. So in our control system we’re actually going to have a PD controller for each joint.

The above-mentioned nonlinearity that’s left in the system dynamics is due to the Coriolis and centrifugal effects. Now, these can be accounted for, but they require highly accurate model of the moments of inertia. If the moments are incorrect then the controller can actually introduce instability into the system, so it’s better if we just don’t address them.

Rewriting the system dynamics presented at the very top, in terms of acceleration gives

\ddot{\textbf{q}} = \textbf{M}^{-1}(\textbf{q}) (\textbf{u} - \textbf{C}(\textbf{q}, \dot{\textbf{q}}) - \textbf{g}(\textbf{q})).

Ideally, the control signal would be constructed

\textbf{u} = (\textbf{M}(\textbf{q}) \; \ddot{\textbf{q}}_\textrm{des} + \textbf{C}(\textbf{q}, \dot{\textbf{q}}) + \textbf{g}(\textbf{q})),

where \ddot{\textbf{q}}_\textrm{des} is the desired acceleration of the system. This would result in system acceleration

\ddot{\textbf{q}} = \textbf{M}^{-1}(\textbf{q})((\textbf{M}(\textbf{q}) \; \ddot{\textbf{q}}_\textrm{des} + \textbf{C}(\textbf{q}, \dot{\textbf{q}}) + \textbf{g}(\textbf{q})) - \textbf{C}(\textbf{q}, \dot{\textbf{q}}) - \textbf{g}(\textbf{q})),

\ddot{\textbf{q}} = \textbf{M}^{-1}(\textbf{q}) \textbf{M}(\textbf{q}) \; \ddot{\textbf{q}}_\textrm{des} ,

\ddot{\textbf{q}} = \ddot{\textbf{q}}_\textrm{des},

which would be ideal. As mentioned, because the Coriolis and centrifugal effects are tricky to account for we’ll leave them out, so the instead the control signal is

\textbf{u} = (\textbf{M}(\textbf{q}) \; \ddot{\textbf{q}}_\textrm{des} + \textbf{g}(\textbf{q})).

Using a standard PD control formula to generate the desired acceleration:

\ddot{\textbf{q}}_\textrm{des} = k_p \; (\textbf{q}_{\textrm{des}} - \textbf{q}) + k_v \; (\dot{\textbf{q}}_{\textrm{des}} - \dot{\textbf{q}}),

where k_p and k_v are our gain values, and the control signal has been fully defined:

\textbf{u} = (\textbf{M}(\textbf{q}) \; (k_p \; (\textbf{q}_{\textrm{des}} - \textbf{q}) + k_v \; (\dot{\textbf{q}}_{\textrm{des}} - \dot{\textbf{q}})) + \textbf{g}(\textbf{q})),

and we’ve successfully build an effective PD controller in joint space!

Conclusions

Here we looked at building a PD controller that operates in the joint space of a robotic arm that can cancel out the effects of inertia and gravity. By cancelling out the effects of inertia, we can treat control of each of the joints independently, effectively orthogonalizing their control. This makes PD control super easy, we just set up a simple controller for each joint. Also a neat thing is that all of the required calculations can be performed with algorithms of linear complexity, so it’s not a problem to do all of this super fast.

One of the finer points was that we ignored the Coriolis and centrifugal effects on the robot’s dynamics. This is because in the mass matrix model of the moments of inertia are notoriously hard to accurately capture on actual robots. Often you go based off of a CAD model of your robot and then have to do some fine-tuning by hand. So they will be unaccounted for in our control signal, but most of the time as long as you have a very short feedback loop you’ll be fine.

I am really enjoying working through this, as things build on each other so well here and we’re starting to be able to do some really interesting things with the relatively forward transformation matrices and Jacobians that we learned how to build in the previous posts. This was for a very simple robot, but excitingly the next step after this is moving on to operational space control! At last. From there, we’ll go on to look at more complex robotic situations where things like configuration redundancy are introduced and it’s not quite so straightforward.

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